Foraging with finesse: A hard-fruit-eating primate selects the weakest areas as bite sites

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10142/615963
Title:
Foraging with finesse: A hard-fruit-eating primate selects the weakest areas as bite sites
Authors:
Barnett, Adrian A.; Bezerra, Bruna M.; Santos, Paulo J. P.; Spironello, Wilson R.; Shaw, Peter J.A.; MacLarnon, Ann; Ross, Caroline
Abstract:
OBJECTIVES: Fruit husks are rarely uniformly hard, varying in penetrability via sulci and changes in thickness. We tested whether a hard-food specialist primate i) bites randomly on food fruit husk surfaces to access seeds, or ii) selects areas most easily penetrated by canines. We consider this would occur so as to minimize deployed mechanical force, energetic expenditure and risk of dental breakage when feeding. METHODS: A sulcus is the natural line of weakness where a dehiscent fruit breaks open. Using fruits dentally opened for seeds by golden-back uacaris (Cacajao ouakary) we: 1) analysed bite mark distribution on surface of four fruits types (hard-with-sulcus, soft-with-sulcus, hard-no-sulcus, soft-no-sulcus); 2) quantified the force needed to penetrate hard and soft fruits at sulci and elsewhere on fruit surface; 3) measured fruit wall thickness and correlated it with bite-mark distribution in all four categories of fruit. RESULTS: 1) Bite marks were distributed at random only on surfaces of soft fruits. For other fruits types, bite locations were concentrated at the thinnest areas of husk, either over the entire surface (non-sulcate fruits), or at sulci (sulcate fruits). 2) For hard-husked fruits, areas where uacaris concentrated their bites were significantly easier to penetrate than those where they did not. CONCLUSIONS: This hard-fruit feeding specialist primate is not biting at random on the surface of diet fruits. To access seeds they are focusing on those areas requiring less force to penetrate. This may be to save energy, to minimize the risk of breaking teeth used in food processing, or a combination of both. The study shows, for the first time, the subtlety by which these powerfully-jawed animals process their diet items.
Affiliation:
University of Roehampton; Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
Citation:
Foraging with finesse: A hard-fruit-eating primate selects the weakest areas as bite sites 2016, 160 (1):113 American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Publisher:
Wiley
Journal:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Issue Date:
27-Jan-2016
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10142/615963
DOI:
10.1002/ajpa.22935
Additional Links:
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajpa.22935
Type:
Article
Language:
en
Description:
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Barnett, A. A., Bezerra, B. M., Santos, P. J. P., Spironello, W. R., Shaw, P. J.A., MacLarnon, A. and Ross, C. (2016), Foraging with finesse: A hard-fruit-eating primate selects the weakest areas as bite sites. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 160: 113–125. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22935, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22935. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving. Accepted Date: 18/12/2015; Version: Author Manuscript / Post-Print; Exceptions: None
ISSN:
0002-9483
Appears in Collections:
Department of Life Sciences Collection

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorBarnett, Adrian A.en
dc.contributor.authorBezerra, Bruna M.en
dc.contributor.authorSantos, Paulo J. P.en
dc.contributor.authorSpironello, Wilson R.en
dc.contributor.authorShaw, Peter J.A.en
dc.contributor.authorMacLarnon, Annen
dc.contributor.authorRoss, Carolineen
dc.date.accessioned2016-07-12T12:34:58Z-
dc.date.available2016-07-12T12:34:58Z-
dc.date.issued2016-01-27-
dc.identifier.citationForaging with finesse: A hard-fruit-eating primate selects the weakest areas as bite sites 2016, 160 (1):113 American Journal of Physical Anthropologyen
dc.identifier.issn0002-9483-
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/ajpa.22935-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10142/615963-
dc.descriptionThis is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Barnett, A. A., Bezerra, B. M., Santos, P. J. P., Spironello, W. R., Shaw, P. J.A., MacLarnon, A. and Ross, C. (2016), Foraging with finesse: A hard-fruit-eating primate selects the weakest areas as bite sites. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 160: 113–125. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22935, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22935. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving. Accepted Date: 18/12/2015; Version: Author Manuscript / Post-Print; Exceptions: Noneen
dc.description.abstractOBJECTIVES: Fruit husks are rarely uniformly hard, varying in penetrability via sulci and changes in thickness. We tested whether a hard-food specialist primate i) bites randomly on food fruit husk surfaces to access seeds, or ii) selects areas most easily penetrated by canines. We consider this would occur so as to minimize deployed mechanical force, energetic expenditure and risk of dental breakage when feeding. METHODS: A sulcus is the natural line of weakness where a dehiscent fruit breaks open. Using fruits dentally opened for seeds by golden-back uacaris (Cacajao ouakary) we: 1) analysed bite mark distribution on surface of four fruits types (hard-with-sulcus, soft-with-sulcus, hard-no-sulcus, soft-no-sulcus); 2) quantified the force needed to penetrate hard and soft fruits at sulci and elsewhere on fruit surface; 3) measured fruit wall thickness and correlated it with bite-mark distribution in all four categories of fruit. RESULTS: 1) Bite marks were distributed at random only on surfaces of soft fruits. For other fruits types, bite locations were concentrated at the thinnest areas of husk, either over the entire surface (non-sulcate fruits), or at sulci (sulcate fruits). 2) For hard-husked fruits, areas where uacaris concentrated their bites were significantly easier to penetrate than those where they did not. CONCLUSIONS: This hard-fruit feeding specialist primate is not biting at random on the surface of diet fruits. To access seeds they are focusing on those areas requiring less force to penetrate. This may be to save energy, to minimize the risk of breaking teeth used in food processing, or a combination of both. The study shows, for the first time, the subtlety by which these powerfully-jawed animals process their diet items.en
dc.description.provenanceSubmitted by Camilla Griffiths (camilla.griffiths@roehampton.ac.uk) on 2016-07-12T12:31:31Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Foraging with Finesse 2015.pdf: 222207 bytes, checksum: d1cb52f335fa500de851e5b724d61f2e (MD5)en
dc.description.provenanceApproved for entry into archive by Camilla Griffiths (camilla.griffiths@roehampton.ac.uk) on 2016-07-12T12:34:56Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 Foraging with Finesse 2015.pdf: 222207 bytes, checksum: d1cb52f335fa500de851e5b724d61f2e (MD5)en
dc.description.provenanceMade available in DSpace on 2016-07-12T12:34:58Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Foraging with Finesse 2015.pdf: 222207 bytes, checksum: d1cb52f335fa500de851e5b724d61f2e (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-01-27en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherWileyen
dc.relation.urlhttp://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajpa.22935en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to American Journal of Physical Anthropologyen
dc.titleForaging with finesse: A hard-fruit-eating primate selects the weakest areas as bite sitesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Roehampton; Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia; Universidade Federal de Pernambucoen
dc.identifier.journalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropologyen
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Research in Evolutionary and Ecological Anthropology, Department of Life Sciences; University of Roehampton; London England SW15 4JD UK-
dc.contributor.institutionDepartamento de Zoologia; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco; Recife Pernambuco 50670-901 Brazil-
dc.contributor.institutionDepartamento de Zoologia; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco; Recife Pernambuco 50670-901 Brazil-
dc.contributor.institutionGrupo de Pesquisa de Mamíferos Amazônicos, Coordenação de Biodiversidade; Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia; Manaus Amazonas 69067-375 Brazil-
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Life Sciences; University of Roehampton; London England SW15 4JD UK-
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Research in Evolutionary and Ecological Anthropology, Department of Life Sciences; University of Roehampton; London England SW15 4JD UK-
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Research in Evolutionary and Ecological Anthropology, Department of Life Sciences; University of Roehampton; London England SW15 4JD UK-
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